The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of aromatherapy on the emotional status and sleep quality of the nursing students in Hong Kong facing final examination. It was a single blind; two groups pretest-post-test randomized controlled trial study. Fifty five students were being blinded and randomly allocated into 2 groups, the intervention group Group A and the control group Group B.
Combining the results of 19 interventions and representing families, our analysis produced a mean weighted effect size that was small but significant at 0.
In our review, we suggest that PCBR interventions may be superior to control for improving the psychosocial functioning of both children and parents. PCBR is a complex social process occurring within an interpersonal context, which supports a broad range of outcomes for both children and their parents.
Behaviors and responses of children may also impact the competence or well-being of parents. It may also assist in reducing their stress or depression. We found no statistically significant difference in the impacts of PCBR interventions on psychosocial outcomes of parents and children.
In our review, we support that children who were socioeconomically or culturally disadvantaged might equally benefit from PCBR interventions as their counterparts. In fact, children living in at-risk status or from families of low SES or a minority ethnicity may need more reading-related support because they may have fewer educational resources than their counterparts.
In many previous studies, researchers have also shown the success of PCBR programs for children from high-risk families, such as children whose parents were in prison, 82 children whose mothers were teenagers, 1983 and children who were from homeless families.
There are other variables that were not assessed in the included studies that may be influencing factors, such as the contents and text features of books 2224 and the quality of parent-child interactions.
It is suggested in the meta-analysis that shared reading as a meaningful interaction between children and parents rather than specific reading techniques might be the key to the positive psychosocial effects of PCBR interventions.
We believe that PCBR is a low cost and simply adapted approach for any parent-child dyad, no matter what the circumstances. Conducting this meta-analysis allowed us to assess the current state of the research on PCBR interventions. We found a limited number of studies that met the selection criteria.
Future researchers should pay more attention to the quality of study design because many PCBR-related studies identified in our search were excluded because of not employing an RCT design. Also, validated scales were not commonly used to evaluate psychosocial effects of PCBR interventions, especially on the quality of parent-child relationships.
PCBR is not only a process of communicating information or learning skills but also a socially created, interactive process. Using validated scales to assess its effects on parent-child relationships may improve our understanding about the dynamics of PCBR interactions.
In our review, we also identified that only a limited number of the reported PCBR interventions involved fathers. Future PCBR interventions should be designed to attract the participation of fathers because of the importance of father-child interactions in the development of children.
The ratio of moderating variables to the included studies limits interpretation of the findings and potentially renders this review as an exploratory process. Second, dissecting interventions in the included studies was problematic because authors of some studies reported on interventions with combined reading and psychosocial components eg, parenting programs and child behavior programs.
Third, we identified and included a broad range of psychosocial outcomes from the included studies. For example, we included studies in which the effects of PCBR on reading interests of children and parental attitudes of reading with their child were assessed.
To make sense of these different measures, we treated reading interest as personal competence of children and positive attitudes in reading with children as an important parenting competence.
Whether the studies were similar enough to be combined may be questioned because of the various measures of psychosocial functioning included in the review. However, the goal of this review was to explore the pattern of psychosocial effectiveness of PCBR interventions by assessing psychosocial effectiveness of PCBR interventions in general.
The method we used to calculate effect sizes was suggested by Borenstein et al 47 and has been also used in previous studies as well. Conclusions Exploring and assessing psychosocial effects of shared reading between parents and children allow us to extend the implications of PCBR interventions.
A large number of family interventions have traditionally targeted behavioral problems of children instead of the interactions or relationships between parents and children.
Because of the limited long-term efficacy of an individual-focused approach, more and more scholars have highlighted the importance of relationship-focused interventions. The delivery of these interventions has also posed challenges when children return to their families, if their families are not able to assist in the therapy.
In summary, suggested in our meta-analysis findings is that PCBR interventions might positively impact the psychosocial functioning of both parents and children.
It seems prudent to consider the application of PCBR in improving the psychosocial well-being of families, especially those at high risk. Footnotes Accepted January 25, Address correspondence to Cecilia L. The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.
The authors have indicated they have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.Featured Article. Aarhus University (AU) offers interdisciplinary study programmes within a wide range of academic fields, covering basic research, applied research, strategic research and .
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Play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children and youth.
Play also offers an ideal opportunity for parents to engage fully with their children. Despite the benefits derived from play for both children and parents, time for free play has been markedly reduced for some children. Teachers’ social and emotional skills are important in helping them avoid burnout, increase well-being, and create a positive learning environment.
Teachers can start developing their emotional intelligence by cultivating self-awareness. The Formation Program at the St. Joseph Freinademetz Formation House (SFFH) is holistic in approach.
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