Macromolecules are large molecules within your body that serve essential physiological functions. Encompassing carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, macromolecules exhibit a number of similarities.
Lipids Lipids are hydrocarbons insoluble in polar solvents. Lipids constitute a heterogeneous group of hydrophobic molecules that include the neutral fats or triglyceridesthe steroidsand the phospholipids.
Lipids serve as energy-storage molecules, as major components of cell membranes, and as hormones. Learn more about lipids with Professor Thomas M. Fats or triglycerides are formed by three fatty acids each bonded by an ester linkage to glycerol.
Twist and turn the lipid below to see how kinky fatty acids are. Fats and oils contain a higher proportion of energy-rich carbon-hydrogen bonds than carbohydrates or proteins. Many seeds are rich in oils. Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms because of single bonding between all the carbons.
Unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids present in oils have one or more double bonds between the carbons. Fats are ideal for energy storage requiring only half the mass of glycogen.
Fats are also important in cushioning delicate organs like kidneys against shock and for insulation. Waxes are a form of structural lipid. They form protective coatings on skin, fur, feathers, on the leaves of land plants, and on the exoskeletons of many insects. Phospholipids substitute the third fatty acid of a triglyceride with a negatively charged phosphate groupwhich may be joined to another small molecule.
Phospholipids may have a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic end making them ideally suited for construction of cell membranes. Steroids, such as cholesterol and the sex hormones, are classified as lipids.
These lipids are characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four interconnected rings.
Steroids often have a hydroxyl functional group. Polypeptides and Proteins Proteins consist of one or more chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. These chains are known as polypeptides. Proteins are the most complex and versatile macromolecules. Each amino acid contains a central carbon singly bonded to four different groups: Because of these four groups amino acids may form either "D" or "L" optical isomers.
Only the "L" optical isomer of an amino acid is used by living matter. For more concerning amino acids click on this line.
Proteins exhibit three or four levels of structural organization.
Primary structure is the first level and is determined by a unique linear sequence of amino acids. Secondary structure of proteins describes how the primary structure is folded into particular, localized configurations, the alpha helix and the beta pleated sheet, which result from hydrogen bonding.
Tertiary structure describes the additional, less regular contortions of the molecule caused by the side groups in hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide linkages. In many proteins, the tertiary structure produces an intricately folded, globular shape.
Quaternary structure describes how two or more polypeptide chains interact to form a functional structure. Click here for more on proteins Visit MIT to learn how proteins are sequenced.The main substances found in every cell are a combination of lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and proteins.
Each of these substances plays a different role in the body, and all of them must either come from the diet or be manufactured using other chemicals in the grupobittia.comd: Jun 17, what are the four main groups of biological macromolecules.
nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. which of the following are lipids? starch and glycogen fats nucleotides steroids. the main chemical characteristic that lipids share is that they are _____ in water. You might recall that cells have four macromolecules— nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Nucleic acids, such as DNA, store information.
Lipids are the main component of cell membranes and provide structure. Some proteins are enzymes, and others provide structure. map showing the characteristics of organic compounds. carbohydrates lipids phospholipids dna monosaccharides polysaccharides enzymes nucleic acids proteins fats nucleotides rna name class date each of the four types of macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids).
All living things contain organic macromolecules: Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Characteristic for these organic molecules is that they are made up of only a small number of elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and to smaller amounts nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.
Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids Objectives By the end of this exercise you should be able to: 1.
Perform tests to detect the presence of carbohy, drates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.