When the antibiotic has strong side effects, one has to optimize between those effects and the risk of losing control over the bacteria population. In such critical cases an in-vitro model with only one parameter, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, may not be able to describe the development of an in-vitro bacteria population accurately enough. The Emax model presented here provides more accurate predictions, thus helping with the optimization.
Abstract See the Editorial Commentary by Deresinski, on pages —4. Emerging data suggest that vancomycin may be less effective against serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA infections with minimum inhibitory concentration MIC values at the higher end of the susceptibility range.
The purpose of this review is to examine the strength of these associations. All relevant studies pertaining to treatment outcomes or mortality associated with vancomycin MIC were retrieved from the medical literature from January through August and analyzed according to Cochrane guidelines.
Of the studies identified, 48 studies were reviewed, with 22 studies included in the final meta-analysis.
Although these data highlight concerns about vancomycin, currently, there are no data to support better survival rates with alternative antibiotics. Data are sorely needed to determine whether other agents can remedy these outcomes observed with vancomycin for MRSA infections with elevated vancomycin MIC values.
Hospital-acquired MRSA infection rates have steadily increased over the past 25 years, and the bacterial strain is making inroads to the community [ 1—6 ]. Vancomycin is currently the cornerstone of therapy for serious infections caused by this pathogen.
It has taken approximately 40 years for the first isolates with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides to emerge. Despite its sustained in vitro microbiologic inhibitory activity, researchers are beginning to question the continued clinical usefulness of vancomycin for MRSA infection.
In particular, emerging data suggest that vancomycin may be less effective against serious MRSA infection with MIC values at the higher end of the susceptibility range. The consequence of such a decision would be to reduce the role of vancomycin substantially, if not relegate it to the antibiotic scrapheap, especially in institutions documenting vancomycin MIC creep [ 8 ].
The purpose of this review is to examine the strength of these associations and identify the future role of vancomycin. The abstracts of all studies were reviewed. A study was considered to be eligible for inclusion if outcomes of interest were presented for S.
In contrast, studies using agar dilution and disc diffusion for vancomycin MIC measurements were excluded because these methods are no longer considered to be accurate [ 9 ]. In addition, authors were contacted wherever possible to provide further details on mortality, treatment failure, or MIC methodology used.
Studies written in languages other than English and those presented solely as abstracts at scientific conferences were excluded. Data Extraction, Outcomes, and Data Analysis Data extracted from the identified studies included clinical setting, number of patients studied, S.
The bacteremic source was further classified into 3 mortality risk categories: The primary outcome was all-cause day mortality. Secondary predefined outcomes were treatment or microbiological failure. For treatment failure, the definition in each study was used.
Data analysis was performed using RevMan version 5. Meta-analysis was performed using fixed-effects models, unless significant heterogeneity was observed, in which case random-effects models were used.
A P value of. Predetermined subgroup analyses were performed on the basis of MIC methodology, S. Of these, 25 studies were included in the meta-analysis Table 1.
Twenty-three studies were excluded for the following reasons:Study on the Antimicrobial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Essential Oils of Spices grupobittia.comesh Babu*1, grupobittia.com Sundari1,J. Indumathi1, grupobittia.com2 and grupobittia.comthi2 grupobittia.comment of Veterinary Public Health.
The concentration of drug required to produce the effect is defined as the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, and is normally several hundred to thousands of times less than the concentration found in the finished dosage form.
The minimum inhibitory concentration is defined as the lowest concentration able to inhibit any visible bacterial growth on the culture plates.
This was determined from readings on the culture plates after incubation. The most commonly employed methods are. THABILE PRECIOUS NKAMBULE. A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) range for dried and fresh turmeric were – mg/mL.
Little variation in antimicrobial. Results: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration determination by tube dilution method and cup well diffusion method was found to be same. The antimicrobial activity on test organisms was shown by all toothpastes (TH1, TH2, TR3, TR4, TR5, TR6, TR7 and TR8).
Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Metronidazole and Tinidazole against Trichomonas vaginalis Mtshali AN, Sturm AW, Moodley P and Joubert BC Department of Infection Prevention and Control, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.