John p roche founding fathers thesis

Thomas Minor" by John A.

John p roche founding fathers thesis

Indigenous peoples of California Pre-contact Acjachemen built cone-shaped huts made of willow branches covered with brush or mats made of tule leaves. Known as Kiichas or wikiupsthe temporary shelters were utilized for sleeping or as refuge in cases of inclement weather.

When a dwelling reached the end of its practical life it was simply burned, and a replacement erected in its place in about a day's time. The natives often ate acorns that they turned into soups, cakes and bread. The bulk of the population occupied the outlets of two large creeks, San Juan Creek and its major tributary, Trabuco Creek and San Mateo Creek combined with Arroyo San Onofrewhich drained into the ocean at the same point.

The highest concentration of villages was along the lower San Juan, where Mission San Juan Capistrano was ultimately situated and is preserved today.

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Village populations ranged from between 35 and inhabitants, consisting of a single lineage in the smaller villages, and of a dominant clan joined with other families in the larger settlements.

Each clan had its own resource territory and was "politically" independent; ties to other villages were maintained through economic, religious, and social networks in the immediate region.

The elite class composed chiefly families, lineage heads, and other ceremonial specialistsa middle class established and successful familiesand people of disconnected or wandering families and captives of war comprised the three hierarchical social classes.

This body decided upon matters of the community, which were then carried out by the Nota and his underlings.

While the placement of residential huts in a village was not regulated, the ceremonial enclosure Vanquech and the chief's home were most often centrally located.

The Playanos held that an all-powerful and unseen being called "Nocuma" brought about the earth and the sea, together with all of the trees, plants, and animals of sky, land, and water contained therein.

We know that they adore a large bird similar to a kite, which they raise with the greatest of care from the time it is young, and they hold to many errors regarding it. If there is an eclipse of the sun or of the moon, they shout with still louder outcries, beating the ground, skins, or mats with sticks, which shows their concerns and uneasiness.

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The expedition arrived at the site from the northeast, traveling down San Juan Creekand camped near the future mission site on July By that time, the site was already known by the name of its patron saint"San Juan Capistrano".

Mission San Gabriel provided cattle and neophyte labor to assist in the development of new the Mission.

John p roche founding fathers thesis

Serra visited the Mission for the first time since its founding and administered the Sacrament of Confirmation on October Known proudly as the "Serra Chapel," it also has the distinction of being the only remaining church in which Serra is known to have officiated " Mission Dolores " was still under construction at the time of Serra's visit there.

Serra presided over the confirmations of people on October 12 and 13, ; divine services are held there to this day. The intact "Great Stone Church" is depicted at the far right. The first winery in Alta California was built in San Juan Capistrano in ; both red and white wines sweet and drybrandyand a port-like fortified wine called Angelica were all produced from the Mission grape.

Inthe Mission's two original bells were removed from the tree branch on which they had been hanging for the previous fifteen years and placed within a permanent mounting. Over the next two decades the Mission prospered, and in over seventy adobe structures were built in order to provide permanent housing for the Mission Indians, some of which comprise the oldest residential neighborhood in California.

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