Recent efforts to combat haze have been far from cursory. The source country Indonesia has enacted logging moratoria, combined its environmental and forestry ministries, and ratified - albeit with great delay - the Asean Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in September last year.
Inadequate fire fighting and management capacity  Fire as a tool in land clearing[ edit ] Fire is the cheapest and fastest method to clear land in preparation for planting.
Fire is used to clear the plant material left over from logging or old crops. Mechanically raking the plant material into long piles and letting them rot over time, is expensive and slow, and could harbour pests.
To make the soil suitable for agriculture, the pH has to be neutralised and nutrients added. Pests and plant diseases also have to be removed. One method is Haze problem use chemicals such as limestone to neutralise the acidity, as well as fertilisers and pesticides.
This method costs about Rupiah 30 - 40 million per hectare.
Alternatively, fire is used to clear the plant material left over from logging. The fire kills pests and the resulting ash serves to fertilise the soil and neutralise the acidity. This method costs Rupiah 2 million per hectare. The land rights of traditional communities that live on land classified as forest cannot be registered and are generally unrecognised by the state.
Competing claims in turn leads to land conflicts. A peatland is an area where organic material such as leaves and twigs had accumulated naturally under waterlogged conditions in the last 10, years.
This layer of organic material, known as peatcan be up to 20m deep. Due to its high carbon content, dry peat is extremely susceptible to burning, especially during the dry season.
Studies have shown that peat fires are a major contributor to the haze. As a whole the recurring haze incidents affected regional economy and generated contention between governments of nations affected. Fire damage[ edit ] Haze fires can cause many kinds of damage that are local as well as transboundary.
These include loss of direct and indirect forest benefits, timber, agricultural products and biodiversity. The fires also incur significant firefighting costs and carbon release to the atmosphere. The haze also leads to industrial production losses, airline and airport losses, damage to fisheries, and incurs the costs on cloud seeding.
In addition, severe haze weather can lead to long-term health damage, reduced crop productivity, reduced visibility, avertive expenditures, accidents, loss of life, evacuations, and the loss of confidence of foreign investors. There is also individual variation regarding the ability to tolerate air pollution.
Most people would at most experience sneezing, running nose, eye irritation, dry throat and dry cough from the pollutants.
They are mild and pose no significant danger to the health of the general population. Children and the elderly in general are more likely to be affected. For some, symptoms may worsen with physical activity. Many companies have also claimed that zero burning is impractical and uncompetitive given the lack of meaningful penalties for illegal burning.
Resolve problems relating to land-use allocations and tenure[ edit ] Research shows that the most common cause of fire was related to competition and conflict about land tenure and land allocation.
Regional reforms are needed to resolve the resource conflicts and they offer opportunities for the regional government to reconcile decisions with those of local and customary institutions.
Regional reforms should also ensure that land and resource allocations and decisions at all levels are compatible with physical site characteristics, prominently taking fire risks into account.
Reduce forest degrading practices[ edit ] Policies to improve land management and measures to restore ecological integrity to degraded natural forests are extremely important to reduce the incidence of repeated fires.
Promoting community involvement in such rehabilitation efforts is critical for their success in reducing fire risks. Build institutional capacity to prevent and suppress fires[ edit ] The fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra highlight the need to develop fire management systems that address concerns of specific areas.
Sufficient resources must be made available to improve fire management in regions that need them, while recognising the diverse needs of different regions and the people within them.
Technology such as remote sensing, digital mapping, and instantaneous communications can help to predict, detect, and respond to potential fire crises. However, such technology should be broadly accessible, widely used, and transparently controlled before they can be effective in improving fire management in remote regions.
Implement economic disincentives and incentives[ edit ] In addition to effective criminal and monetary penalties for illegal burning and liability for fire damage, some policy analysts believe in the potential for economic policy reforms and market-based incentives.
A combination of eco-labeling and international trade restrictions could reduce markets for commodities that posed high-fire risks in their production.
History[ edit ] It generally refers to haze occurring in Southeast Asia. In specific intense cases, it may refer to:The haze this past few days have gotten really bad.
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