While in some circles the expression "human enhancement" is roughly synonymous with human genetic engineering  it is used most often to refer to the general application of the convergence of nanotechnologybiotechnologyinformation technology and cognitive science NBIC to improve human performance. He also argues that the concept of " enablement " needs to be added to the debate over "therapy" versus "enhancement".
First page of the edition of the Napoleonic Code. Civil law is the legal system used in most countries around the world today. In civil law the sources recognised as authoritative are, primarily, legislation—especially codifications in constitutions or statutes passed by government—and custom.
Modern civil law systems essentially derive from the legal practice of the 6th-century Eastern Roman Empire whose texts were rediscovered by late medieval Western Europe. Roman law in the days of the Roman Republic and Empire was heavily procedural, and lacked a professional legal class.
Decisions were not published in any systematic way, so any case law that developed was disguised and almost unrecognised. From — AD the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I codified and consolidated Roman law up until that point, so that what remained was one-twentieth of the mass of legal texts from before.
As one legal historian wrote, "Justinian consciously looked back to the golden age of Roman law and aimed to restore it to the peak it had reached three centuries before.
Western Europe, meanwhile, relied on a mix of the Theodosian Code and Germanic customary law until the Justinian Code was rediscovered in the 11th century, and scholars at the University of Bologna used it to interpret their own laws. Both these codes influenced heavily not only the law systems of the countries in continental Europe e.
Greecebut also the Japanese and Korean legal traditions. Common law and equity[ edit ] Main article: Common law King John of England signs Magna Carta In common law legal systemsdecisions by courts are explicitly acknowledged as "law" on equal footing with statutes adopted through the legislative process and with regulations issued by the executive branch.
The "doctrine of precedent", or stare decisis Latin for "to stand by decisions" means that decisions by higher courts bind lower courts, and future decisions of the same court, to assure that similar cases reach similar results.
In contrastin " civil law " systems, legislative statutes are typically more detailed, and judicial decisions are shorter and less detailed, because the judge or barrister is only writing to decide the single case, rather than to set out reasoning that will guide future courts.
Common law originated from England and has been inherited by almost every country once tied to the British Empire except Malta, Scotlandthe U. In medieval England, the Norman conquest the law varied-shire-to-shire, based on disparate tribal customs.
The concept of a "common law" developed during the reign of Henry II during the late 12th century, when Henry appointed judges that had authority to create an institutionalized and unified system of law "common" to the country. The next major step in the evolution of the common law came when King John was forced by his barons to sign a document limiting his authority to pass laws.
This "great charter" or Magna Carta of also required that the King's entourage of judges hold their courts and judgments at "a certain place" rather than dispensing autocratic justice in unpredictable places about the country.
Infor instance, while the highest court in France had fifty-one judges, the English Court of Common Pleas had five. As a result, as time went on, increasing numbers of citizens petitioned the King to override the common law, and on the King's behalf the Lord Chancellor gave judgment to do what was equitable in a case.
From the time of Sir Thomas Morethe first lawyer to be appointed as Lord Chancellor, a systematic body of equity grew up alongside the rigid common law, and developed its own Court of Chancery.FROM BREEDING TO TRANSGENIC ART "GFP Bunny" is a transgenic artwork and not a breeding project.
The differences between the two include the principles that guide the work, the procedures employed, and the main objectives. Human enhancement is "any attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means.
It is the use of technological means to select or alter human characteristics and capacities, whether or not the alteration results in characteristics and capacities that lie beyond the existing human range.". Jul 24, · In the very short time since GMO foods were first introduced, they have tainted ecosystems, created financial strains for farmers, and introduced unnatural elements into the local, national, and global food supply.
Agricultural and Food Controversies: What Everyone Needs to Know® [F. Bailey Norwood, Pascal A. Oltenacu, Michelle S.
Calvo-Lorenzo, Sarah Lancaster] on grupobittia.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The world is more interested in issues surrounding agricultural and food issues than ever before.
Are pesticides safe? Should we choose locally grown food? KFC is a fast food chain that has been around for a long time now and is very much one of the ‘big three’ when it comes to your options for where to get a burger and fries.
At the same time though, KFC manages to distinguish itself from the other two by focussing predominantly on chicken (KFC. SA Forum is an invited essay from experts on topical issues in science and technology.
The World Food Prize laureates for were announced in June. They are Marc van Montagu, Mary-Dell Chilton.