Each executive branch agency with statutory or administrative responsibility for the management of Federal lands is required, to the extent practicable, permitted by law, and not clearly inconsistent with agency functions, accommodate access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred sites by Indian religious practitioners. They shall also avoid adversely affecting the physical integrity of the sacred sites.
Almost immediately, European intellectuals began efforts to explain how and why the human condition had come to be so diverse. As a result, scholarship during the Enlightenment emphasized categorization and soon produced various typologies that described a series of fixed stages of cultural evolution.
Most focused on three major stages, but some posited many more categories. He posited that the final epoch had begun with the French Revolution and was destined to usher in universal human rights and the perfection of the human race. In Ledetraad til nordisk Oldkyndighed ; A Guide to Northern Antiquitieshe categorized ancient European societies on the basis of their tools, calling the developmental stages the Stone, Bronze, Cultural artifacts list Iron ages.
In the later 19th century, theories of cultural evolution were enormously influenced by the wide acceptance of the theory of biological evolution put forward by Charles Darwin in The Origin of Species Social scientists found that the framework suggested by biological evolution offered an attractive solution to their questions regarding the origins and development of social behaviour.
Indeed, the idea of a society as an evolving organism was a biological analogy that was taken up by many anthropologists and sociologists and that persisted in some quarters even into the 20th century.
The English philosopher Herbert Spencer was among the first to work out a general evolutionary scheme that included human societies from across the globe.
In short, human societies evolved, by means of an increasing division of labourinto complex civilizations. Tylor in England and Lewis H.
Morgan in the United States were the chief exponents of cultural stages in the evolution of humankind. They emphasized the analysis of culture in general, not that of individual cultures, except as the latter might illustrate their theories of the overall evolution of humanity and civilization.
Morgan summed up the precepts of the unilineal approach quite well: Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, London Since mankind were one in origin, their career has been essentially one, running in different but uniform channels upon all continents, and very similarly in all the tribes and nations of mankind down to the same status of advancement.
It follows that the history and experience of the American Indian tribes represent, more or less nearly, the history and experience of our own remote ancestors when in corresponding conditions. He supported his ideas by citing contemporary societies characteristic of each stage except lower savagery, of which there were no extant examples.
His work underlay debates on matters, such as the relative importance of technological innovation versus diffusionthat were of serious concern for the remainder of the 19th century and persisted well into the 20th.
Multilinear theory A widespread reaction against sweeping generalizations about culture began in the late 19th century in the United States and somewhat later in Europe.
Theories and descriptions of hypothetical stages of evolution generally, and of unilinear evolution specifically, were heavily criticized as racist; instead of presuming that some peoples were more evolved than others, the new trend was to regard all cultures as unique in time and place.
In the United States this movement, known as cultural particularismwas led by the German-born anthropologist Franz Boas. AP Boas and several generations of his students—including A. KroeberRuth Benedictand Margaret Mead —turned completely away from broad generalizations about culture and concentrated on fieldwork among traditional peoples, harvesting a great variety of facts and artifacts as empirical evidence of cultural processes within existing societies.
By mid-century, however, a number of American anthropologists, including Leslie A. WhiteJulian H. StewardMarshall D. Sahlins, and Elman R.
Servicehad revived theoretical discussions regarding cultural change over time. They posited that while no specific evolutionary changes are experienced by all cultures universally, human societies do generally evolve or progress. They further suggested that the primary mechanism for such progress involved technological breakthroughs that make societies more adaptable to and dominant over the environment; technologyin this case, was quite broadly conceived, and included such developments as improvements in tool forms or materials as with the transition through the Stone, Bronze, and Iron ages and later the Industrial Revolutiontransportation as from pedestrian to equestrian to motorized formsand food production as from hunting and gathering to agriculture.
Proponents of multilinear evolution hold that only in this sense can the whole of world culture be viewed as the product of a unitary process.Feb 24, · Whenever anything remotely significant happens, someone will be there to collect, catalogue, and hawk everything even tangentially related to it.
Cruise ar. Cultural Education Centre. Cultural Education programs are delivered by expert staff who will fill your mind with the wonders of Australia’s Indigenous Culture, connection to the land, spirituality, laws, cultural designs, Dreaming stories and more.
KUMEYAAY CULTURAL REPATRIATION. The Kumeyaay Cultural Repatriation Committee (KCRC) was created in to aid the San Diego area Kumeyaay bands in the repatriation of their ancestors' human remains, tribal artifacts and cultural objects of a patrimony heritage.
The Harappan civilization of the Indus Sarasvati River basin and recent evidence from archaeology, science, genetics etc, raises many questions not answered without stepping outside of the rigid constraints of long help theories such as the Aryan Invasion theory.
Repatriation is the return of art or cultural heritage, usually referring to ancient or looted art, to their country of origin or former owners (or their heirs).The disputed cultural property items are physical artifacts of a group or society that were taken from another group usually in an act of looting, whether in the context of imperialism, colonialism or .
Feb 24, · 8 The Ending Of The Bayeux Tapestry. The Bayeux Tapestry is a medieval work of art depicting the Norman Conquest of England. The 70 meter ( ft) length of cloth is the most widely recognized tapestry in the entire world.