Why do people use them? A Web cache sits between one or more Web servers also known as origin servers and a client or many clients, and watches requests come by, saving copies of the responses — like HTML pages, images and files collectively known as representations — for itself. Then, if there is another request for the same URL, it can use the response that it has, instead of asking the origin server for it again.
Typically, the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i. If more than one person created the work, then a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship.
The United States Copyright Officefor example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States title 17, U. Code to authors of "original works of authorship". Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, and often will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material.
After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions — mostly following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have very strong lobbying power — have been amended repeatedly since their inception, to extend the authors writing about nature of this fixed period where the work is exclusively controlled by the copyright holder.
The person who inherits the copyright is not the author, but enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.
How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors, music, and other considerations, come into play?
Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or even stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case also illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may also involved trademark law e.
Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, and for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have already been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game.
An author may also not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire e. Philosophical views of the nature of authorship[ edit ] Mark Twain was a prominent American author in multiple genres including fiction and journalism during the 19th century.
In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting.
In the wake of postmodern literaturecritics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea that a text can be attributed to any single author. He writes, in his essay "Death of the Author"that "it is language which speaks, not the author".
Every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture"; it is never original.
To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, passions, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?
He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". They warn of the dangers interpretations could suffer from when associating the subject of inherently meaningful words and language with the personality of one authorial voice.
Instead, readers should allow a text to be interpreted in terms of the language as "author". Relationship with publisher[ edit ] Main article: Self-publishing Self-publishing, self-publishing, independent publishing, or artisanal publishing is the "publication of any book, album or other media by its author without the involvement of a traditional publisher.
It is the modern equivalent to traditional publishing". Types[ edit ] Unless a book is to be sold directly from the author to the public, an ISBN is required to uniquely identify the title. ISBN is a global standard used for all titles worldwide. Most self-publishing companies either provide their own ISBN to a title or can provide direction;  it may be in the best interest of the self-published author to retain ownership of ISBN and copyright instead of using a number owned by a vanity press.
A separate ISBN is needed for each edition of the book.
E-book There are a variety of e-book formats and tools that can be used to create them. Because it is possible to create e-books with no up-front or per-book costs, this is a popular option for self-publishers.
Print-on-demand Print-on-demand POD publishing refers to the ability to print high-quality books as needed. For self-published books, this is often a more economical option than conducting a print run of hundreds or thousands of books.The 10 best nature books We celebrate the arrival of spring with a selection of the best nature writing.
Tim Dee is the author of Four Fields and The Running Sky. He is currently writing a book. Thinking of writing or editing a book?
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No One Person Speaks for Freemasonry. This makes it particularly confusing for those who want to look for that 'one authoritative writing' which encompasses .
Offering guidance on writing poetry, nonfiction, and fiction, Environmental and Nature Writing is a complete introduction to the art and craft of writing about the environment in a wide range of genres.
With discussion questions and writing prompts throughout, Environmental and Nature Writing: A Writers' Guide and Anthology covers such topics as: Reviews: 2. Like fellow genre icon Stephen King, Ray Bradbury has reached far beyond his established audience by offering writing advice to anyone who puts pen to paper.
(Or keys to keyboard; "Use whatever works," he often says.) In this keynote address at Point Loma Nazarene University's Writer's. The canon of U.S. nature writing, like the literary canon in general, has long been male-centered.
But as this anthology shows, women's voices have been there since the .