They founded a chain of trading settlements along the coast on islands and peninsulas. The Iberians gave the Phoenicians silver in return for wine and olive oil as well as jewelry. The people of Spain were heavily influenced by Phoenician culture. The Greeks also traded with Spain the Iberians were also influenced by Greek culture.
Enjoy the Famous Daily Western Europe: Geographically this is a most unwieldy inheritance, reminiscent of the patchwork quilt of territories owing allegiance to feudal monarchs such as Henry II. But Charles to some extent rationalizes his vast estate in He gives control of Austria and other German-speaking Habsburg territories to his brother, Ferdinand I.
This still leaves Charles with an awkward clutch of territories in western Europe. He rules Spain, Burgundy and much of Italy, including the north.
His possessions flank the kingdom of France on almost all its land boundaries - a circumstance unwelcome to Francis Ithe king of France. The struggle between Charles and Francis, or the houses of Habsburg and Valois, is a recurrent theme of the first half of the 16th century.
With the increasing trend towards strong nations, ruled by absolute monarchs, this Habsburg-Valois rivalry evolves into enduring conflicts between Spain and France and subsequently Austria and France until the famous Diplomatic Revolution of The third nation of western Europe, England, also has a strong ruler in the early 16th century, but he is as yet a minor player in this league.
All three kingdoms - Spain, France and England - also compete in another context, across the Atlantic. This new dimension shifts Europe's centre of gravity to the west during the 16th century. Subsequently it brings increasing power and wealth to England and to her nearest neighbours, the Dutchthrough a blend of overseas trade, the planting of colonies and general pugnacity at sea.
The fall of Constantinople inbringing to an end the Byzantine empire, completes the Turkish dominance of the Balkans.
Henceforth there is a hostile boundary between Muslim and Christian territory in southeast Europe, frequently adjusted by warfare - with the Hungarians in the front line for Christianity. Meanwhile a great new power is emerging in northeast Europe which will replace to some extent at least in its own self-image the lost Byzantine empire.
From the reign of Ivan the Terrible, beginning inMoscow emerges as the powerful centre of an expanding Russia.
This is now the most powerful kingdom practising Orthodox Christianity. Russia begins to present herself as the new Christian empire, ruled by a tsar - the third Rome. By the power blocs are in place around Europe which will dominate the continent during the next three centuries - the Russian empire, the Turkish or Ottoman empirethe Habsburg empireand the kingdoms of France and England.
The spark of the Reformation, struck by Luther inblazes for a century and a half across the whole of western Europe. From martyrdom of Protestants in one place and Catholics in another, through sudden massacres as on St Bartholomew's Day in France to prolonged warfare the Thirty Years' Warthe prevailing mood of the continent becomes one of religious intolerance and frenzy, often usefully put to the service of politics.
Not till the late 17th century does national interest transcend religious fervour.During the 16th century the Spaniards fought the Turks and the French. From The Netherlands, which were ruled by Spain, rebelled and began a long war of independence. Furthermore from to Spain also fought the English.
The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the s.
This new dimension shifts Europe's centre of gravity to the west during the 16th century. Subsequently it brings increasing power and wealth to England and to her nearest neighbours, the Dutch, through a blend of overseas trade, the planting of colonies and general pugnacity at sea.
3)During the first half of the 16th century, religious conflict had been confined to central Europe and was primarily a struggle between Lutherans and _____ to secure rights and freedoms for themselves. The 16th century begins with the Julian year and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a .
The Church of England, or Anglicanism, was established during the reign of Elizabeth I in the 16th Century. Share to: Why was the relationship between England and Spain difficult up to the 19th.