Overview[ edit ] Definitions of complexity often depend on the concept of a confidential " system " — a set of parts or elements that have relationships among them differentiated from relationships with other elements outside the relational regime. Many definitions tend to postulate or assume that complexity expresses a condition of numerous elements in a system and numerous forms of relationships among the elements.
England, predominant constituent unit of the United Kingdomoccupying more than half of the island of Great Britain. Despite the political, economic, and cultural legacy that has secured the perpetuation of its name, England no longer officially exists as a governmental or political unit—unlike Scotland, Wales, and Northern Irelandwhich all have varying degrees of self-government in domestic affairs.
It is rare for institutions to operate for England alone. Notable exceptions are the Church of England Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, including Northern Ireland, have separate branches of the Anglican Communion and sports associations for cricketrugbyand football soccer.
In many ways England has seemingly been absorbed within the larger mass of Great Britain since the Act of Union of Laced by great rivers and small streams, England is a fertile land, and the generosity of its soil has supported a thriving agricultural economy for millennia.
Today the metropolitan area of London encompasses much of southeastern England and continues to serve as the financial centre of Europe and to be a centre of innovation—particularly in popular culture.
LondonTime-lapse video of London. Alex Silver One of the fundamental English characteristics is diversity within a small compass. Formed of the union of small Celtic and Anglo-Saxon kingdoms during the early medieval period, England has long comprised several distinct regions, each different in dialecteconomy, religion, and disposition; indeed, even today many English people identify themselves by the regions or shires from which they come—e.
Yet commonalities are more important than these differences, many of which began to disappear in the era after World War IIespecially with the transformation of England from a rural into a highly urbanized society. While English culture draws on the cultures of the world, it is quite unlike any other, if difficult to identify and define.
There is something distinctive and recognizable in English civilization. It has a flavour of its own. Moreover it is continuous, it stretches into the future and the past, there is something in it that persists, as in a living creature.
Much of it consists of rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations found in the north, northwest, and southwest. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks in isolated hills of granite are in Cornwall and Devon on the southwestern peninsula, ancient volcanic rocks underlie parts of the Cumbrian Mountains, and the most recent alluvial soils cover the Fens of CambridgeshireLincolnshireand Norfolk.
Between these regions lie bands of sandstones and limestones of different geologic periods, many of them relicts of primeval times when large parts of central and southern England were submerged below warm seas.
Geologic forces lifted and folded some of these rocks to form the spine of northern England—the Pennineswhich rise to 2, feet metres at Cross Fell.
The Cumbrian Mountainswhich include the famous Lake Districtreach 3, feet metres at Scafell Pike, the highest point in England. Slate covers most of the northern portion of the mountains, and thick beds of lava are found in the southern part.
Other sedimentary layers have yielded chains of hills ranging from feet metres in the North Downs to 1, feet metres in the Cotswolds. The hills known as the Chilternsthe North York Moors, and the Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds were rounded into characteristic plateaus with west-facing escarpments during three successive glacial periods of the Pleistocene Epoch about 2, to 11, years ago.
When the last ice sheet melted, the sea level rose, submerging the land bridge that had connected Great Britain with the European mainland. Deep deposits of sand, gravel, and glacial mud left by the retreating glaciers further altered the landscape.
Erosion by rain, river, and tides and subsidence in parts of eastern England subsequently shaped the hills and the coastline. Plateaus of limestonegritstone, and carboniferous strata are associated with major coalfields, some existing as outcrops on the surface.
The geologic complexity of England is strikingly illustrated in the cliff structure of its shoreline. A varied panorama of cliffs, bays, and river estuaries distinguishes the English coastline, which, with its many indentations, is some 2, miles 3, km long. The Welland river valley forms part of the rich agricultural land of Lincolnshire.The most seemingly basic of racism facts − the issue of defining exactly what it is − can actually be very problematic.
Racism involves prejudice and discrimination based upon perceived ideas about the biological differences between people. Racism can emerge in social beliefs and practices, or in political systems that differentiate between people based on racial or ethnic qualities.
World Health Organization Assesses the World's Health Systems.
World Health Organization Assesses the World's Health Systems. The World Health Organization has carried out the first ever analysis of the world's health systems.
These are the sacred writings of the Ebionite Nazirene Disciple Allan Cronshaw - who, through the ability to recall his previous life as a Disciple of Christ, has restored Jesus' spiritual teachings.
The English word "China" is first attested in Richard Eden's translation of the journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. The demonym, that is, the name for the people, and adjectival form "Chinese" developed later on the model of Portuguese chinês and French chinois.
Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn (), which may be traced further back to Sanskrit. Read about running tips, facts, history, techniques, health benefits, weight loss, injuries, shoes and clothing, training programs and schedules, and famous runners.
World History Teacher Resources. In this world history review learning exercise, students define and identify the 50 people and events listed on the learning exercise associated with the 's and World War I. then underline the names of important cities in Greece on a world map displayed Get Free Access See Review A Golden Age.