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He expected a functioning League of Nations to correct whatever errors and injustices might creep in to the treaties themselves. Origins of the League of Nations The central, basic idea of the movement was that aggressive war is a crime not only against the immediate victim but against the whole human community.
Accordingly it is the right and duty of all states to join in preventing it; if it is certain that they will so act, no aggression is likely to take place. Such affirmations might be found in the writings of philosophers or moralists but had never before emerged onto the plane of practical politics.
Statesmen and lawyers alike held and acted on the view that there was no natural or supreme law by which the rights of sovereign states, including that of making war as and when they chose, could be judged or limited. Many of the attributes of the League of Nations were developed from existing institutions or from time-honoured proposals for the reform of previous diplomatic methods.
However, the premise of collective security was, for practical purposes, a new concept engendered by the unprecedented pressures of World War I. Library of Congress, Washington, D. Woodrow Wilson insisted that this should be among the first questions to be dealt with by the conference.
The work proceeded with far greater speed than that of territorial and military settlement, chiefly because the subject had been exhaustively studied during the war years.
Unofficial societies in the United StatesGreat BritainFrance, and some neutral countries had drawn up many plans and proposals, and in doing so they in turn had availed themselves of the efforts of earlier thinkers.
Over many years lawyers had worked out plans for the settlement of disputes between states by legal means or, failing these, by third-party arbitrationand the Hague conferences of and had held long debates on these subjects.
The results had been unimpressive; the conference tried in vain to set up an international court, and though many arbitration treaties were signed between individual states, they all contained reservations which precluded their application in more dangerous disputes.
However, though the diplomatists thus kept the free hand as long as possible, the general principle of arbitration—which in popular language included juridical settlement and also settlement through mediation—had become widely accepted by public opinion and was embodied as a matter of course in the Covenant.
Another 19th-century development which had influenced the plan makers was the growth of international bureaus, such as the Universal Postal Unionthe International Institute of Agriculture, and numerous others, set up to deal with particular fields of work in which international cooperation was plainly essential.
They had no political function or influence, but within their very narrow limits they worked efficiently. It was concluded that wider fields of social and economic life, in which each passing year made international cooperation more and more necessary, might with advantage be entrusted to similar international administrative institutions.
Such ideas were strengthened by the fact that, during the war, joint Allied commissions controlling trade, shipping, and procurement of raw materials had gradually developed into powerful and effective administrative bodies.
Planners questioned whether these entities, admitting first the neutrals and later the enemy states into their councils, could become worldwide centres of cooperation in their respective fields.
Other lessons of the war concerned the problems of armaments on the one hand and of diplomacy on the other. It was widely believed that the enormous increase in armaments undertaken by the great powers of Europe during the immediate prewar period had been not only a consequence, but also in itself a cause, of tension, hostility, and finally war.
The naval arms race between the United Kingdom and Germany was an especially obvious manifestation of this phenomenon. DreadnoughtHMS Dreadnought, a British battleship launched at Portsmouth, England, in Februaryinaugurated a new era of battleship design based on steam-turbine engines and batteries of big guns.
National Archives, Washington, D. These general propositions—collective security, arbitration, economic and social cooperation, reduction of armamentsand open diplomacy—inspired in various degrees the plans drawn up during the war. It was urged from the first that they could become effective only through the creation of a great international organization charged with the duty of applying them and invested with the powers necessary to that end.
Their ideas, encouraged by statesmen such as former Pres.
In the presidential election of both parties advocated U. A few months later the United States was a belligerentand Wilson, entering on his second term, became, by right both of his personality and of his position as leader of the greatest world power, the chief spokesman of the Allied coalition.
In Januaryin the historic Fourteen Points in which he summed up U. Thus what had seemed hardly more than a utopian hope was transmuted in a few months into the formal and official purpose of the soon-to-be-victorious Allies.
Meanwhile, both the British and French governments had appointed special committees to draw up plans for the new organization, and their reports were transmitted to Washington, where Wilson and his confidential adviser Edward M.
House were drafting proposals in their turn.
To many of his contemporaries, this was a new vision of the real nature of an effective League of Nations. This text was published, as a draft, on February 14, grupobittia.com is the official site of UEFA, the Union of European Football Associations, and the governing body of football in Europe.
UEFA works to promote, protect and develop European football. Iran, Poland and Serbia will join the U.S. Men’s National Team for three days of FIVB Volleyball Nations League matches on June , The League of Nations was founded in by forty-two countries.
At its height in and , the League had 58 member grupobittia.com member countries of the League of Nations spanned the globe and included most of Southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. January 8: The President of the United States of America, Woodrow Wilson, in his message on the Conditions of Peace delivered at a Joint Session of the Two Houses of the American Congress, identifies the "fourteen points" intended to serve as the basis for world peace.
Nov 04, · The hope is that the Nations League will compliment the FIFA World Cup that is held every four years rather than competing with it. (Photo credit ROBERT MICHAEL/AFP/Getty Images).
Nations Baseball was formed to bring together the best elements in youth baseball today. Starting with advanced technology, the Nations Baseball website features the most complete roster system and team classification system in the country. Teams compete in Metro, Select, Elite and Premier, leagues and tournaments around the nation with opportunities to attend World Series events in the most.